12. April 2021
Differences of opinion between Member States led to a deadlock in the abolition of border controls within the Community, but in 1985 five of the ten Member States at the time – Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany – signed an agreement on the phasing out of border controls. The agreement was signed on the princess Marie-Astrid boat in Moselle, near the city of Schengen, where the territories of France, Germany and Luxembourg meet. Three of the signatories, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, had already abolished common border controls under the Benelux Economic Union. [Citation required] The ETIAS travel authorization allows access to all countries entering the Schengen agreement, i.e. the ETIAS and Schengen countries are identical, and a ETIAS authorisation is practically a Schengen visa. However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa.  In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it „in exceptional circumstances“ and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand citizens can apply to any Schengen country (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already concluded bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the agreement, without the need to apply for a long-stay visa, will apply 90 days within 180 days for travel to other Schengen countries.                  256]                   256]               [262          [their options are effectively reduced to approval or exit from the agreement. However, consultations are being held with the countries concerned prior to the adoption of certain new provisions.
 In many border crossing points at external borders, there are special routes for citizens of the EU, the EEA, Switzerland (as well as their family members) and other routes for all travellers, regardless of nationality.  At some border crossing points at the external border, there is a third route for Schedule II travellers (i.e. third-country/EEA/Swiss nationals who are exempt from the visa requirement).  Although Andorran and San Marines citizens are not EU or EEA citizens, they may use special routes for EU, EEA and Swiss citizens.  British citizens will not be able to use the EU`s trace after Brexit under current rules, unless such a right is introduced into the Brexit deal with the EU.